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    工程和法律英语(6)//建设工程合同定义条款中的Parties

    建设视野2021-09-18 12:04:30

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    合同是当事人共同自由意思的表达。FIDIC 1999版Contract for Construction中有“Parties and Persons”条款,中国《建设工程施工合同(示范文本)》(GF—2017—0201)也列有“合同当事人及其他相关方”条款。下面讨论对“Parties当事人”的理解。

    例1

    “Party”means the Employer or the Contractor,as the context requires.“Employer”means the person named as employer in the Appendix to Tender and the legal successors in title to this person.“Contractor”means the person(s)named as contractor in the Letter of Tender accepted by the Employer and the legal successors in title to this person(s).(1.1.2 Contract for Construction,FIDIC,1999)

    试译:“当事人”是指业主或承包商,由上下文需要确定。“业主”是指在投标书附录中称作业主的人及取得其资格的合法继受人。“承包商”是指在经业主承诺的投标函中称作承包商的人及取得其资格的合法继受人。

    例2

    合同当事人:是指发包人和(或)承包人。发包人:是指与承包人签订合同协议书的当事人及取得该当事人资格的合法继承人。承包人:是指与发包人签订合同协议书的,具有相应工程施工承包资质的当事人及取得该当事人资格的合法继承人。(《建设工程施工合同(示范文本)》(GF—2017—0201),1.1.2)

    试译:“Party”to the Contract means the Contract Letting Party or the Contractor.“Contract Letting Party”means the person who signed the Contract Agreement with the Contractor,and the legal successors in title to this person.“Contractor”means the person who has the qualification to complete the Works and has signed the Contract Agreement with the Contract Letting Party,and the legal successors in title to this person.

    点评

    1

    例1中,the Employer未译成“雇主”,主要是考虑中国人看到“雇主”这个词,更多地联想雇主与雇员之间的雇佣关系,已脱离上下文意思;而译成“业主”,中文“业”本身就有不动产(estate;property)的意思,实践中“业主”也已广为接受,the Employer对应到中国法律中的“建设单位”时,往往是建设工程第一性的业主。the Contractor遵从习惯译成“承包人”或“承包商”。倒是中国人喜欢采用对称,如“发包人”“承包人”与“招标人”“投标人”就是两组对称词。“招标人”“投标人”对称,译成tenderee、tenderer,也是对称,挺好。但要找到与Contractor对称的英文词,似乎不易。我采用了the Contract Letting Party译“发包人”,我甚至想用the Contract Undertaking Party译“承包人”,聊备参考。

    2

    例1中,the legal successors in title to this person未译成“财产所有权的合法继承人”,而译成“取得其资格的合法继受人”。一是考虑中国人更倾向于在《继承法》Law of inheritance或Law of succession意义上理解“继承人”;事实上,successors译成“继受人”,就可方便地涵盖《继承法》以外其他情境中权利义务的继受者,如《公司法》中经分立、合并程序后产生的公司可依法继受此前公司的权利义务。二是title译成“财产所有权”是脱离上下文语境的:title作“财产所有权”理解时,其结构为title to sth,to后是物,而不是人,例1中title to后面恰恰接的是this person,是人,而不是物!可是,将此情形下的title错译成“财产所有权”还很普遍!“取得某人资格”才是title to sb的真实意思。

    3

    例1、例2都严格限定了当事人范围,仅为Employer和Contractor,或发包人和承包人。例1“Parties and Persons”条款中的Persons,和例2“合同当事人及其他相关方”中的“其他相关方”都不是建设工程合同的当事人。这符合英美法系和大陆法系合同法共同的基本原理—合同相对性原理doctrine of privity of contract。It provides that a contract cannot confer rights nor impose its obligations upon any person who is not a party to the contract,and that only parties to the contract should be able to sue to enforce their rights or claim damages thereunder.它规定,合同不可以对非合同当事人授予权利或课以义务,只有合同当事人才可以请求执行合同权利或主张损害赔偿。


    原文见《建筑》2018年第7期

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